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1915 Scottish Railroad Disaster The worst railroad disaster in history occurred on May 22, 1915 near Gretna Green, Dumfriesshire, Scotland. It is commonly known as the Quintinshill Disaster, having been named for the location of a nearby intermediate signal box with passing loops on each side on the Caledonian Railway Main Line linking Glasgow and Carlisle. The crash, which involved five trains, killed a probable 226 people and injured 246 others. Those killed were mainly territorial soldiers from the Royal Scots heading for the Gallipoli front in the First World War. The precise number of dead was never established with certainty as the roll list of the regiment was destroyed by the fire. The crash occurred when a troop train travelling from Larbert, Stirlingshire to Liverpool, Lancashire collided with a local passenger train that had been shunted on to the main line, to then be hit by an express train to Glasgow which crashed into the wreckage a minute later. Gas from the lighting system of the old wooden carriages of the troop train ignited, starting a fire which soon engulfed the three passenger trains and also two goods trains standing on nearby passing loops. A number of bodies were never recovered, having been wholly consumed by the fire. The bodies that were recovered were buried together in a mass grave in Edinburgh's Rosebank Cemetery. Such was the scope of the disaster that many of the rescuers wrongly assumed the trains had been targets of German saboteurs. Four bodies, believed to be of children, were never identified or claimed and are buried in the Western Necropolis, Glasgow. The cause of the accident was poor working practices on the part of the two signalmen involved. It was discovered that the two men often colluded to falsify their records of when they relieved each other, routinely did not follow regulations properly, and engaged in other unsafe practices. The results of the official inquiry into the disaster led to their imprisonment for culpable homicide after legal proceedings in both Scotland and England. A memorial to the dead soldiers was erected soon after the accident. There are a number of more recent memorials at various locations. An annual remembrance service is held at Rosebank Cemetery.
Tags: Scotland  1915  train  disaster 
Added: 13th December 2014
Views: 1059
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Posted By: Lava1964
Automobile Parade- Thomas Alvin Edison Tags: Automobile  Parade-  Thomas  Alvin  Edison  horseless  carriages  cars  autos 
Added: 10th July 2014
Views: 1036
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Posted By: Freckles
Spittoons They'd be considered very unhygienic today, but in their day spittoons were actually a step up in public health. Used as a receptacle for spit generated by chewing tobacco, in the late 19th century spittoons became a common sight in pubs, brothels, saloons, hotels, stores, banks, railway carriages, and other places where people--especially adult men--gathered. Although brass was the most common material for spitoons, other materials ranged from basic functional iron to crafted cut glass and fine porcelain. At higher-class hotels, spittoons were often elaborately decorated. Spittoons were flat-bottomed, often weighted to minimize tipping over, and commonly had an interior lip to make spilling less likely even if they did tip over. Occasionally they'd have lids. Some had holes with an accompanying plug, to aid in draining and cleaning. Use of spittoons was considered an advance of public manners and health, intended to replace previously common habit of spitting on floors, streets, and sidewalks. Many jurisdictions passed laws against spitting in public--other than into a spittoon. Boy Scout troops organized campaigns to paint "Do not Spit on the Sidewalk" notices on city sidewalks. In 1909, Cincinnati scout troops allied with members of the Anti-Tuberculosis League painted thousands of such messages in a single night. A punny mass-produced sign common in saloons read: 'If you expect to rate as a gentleman, do not expectorate on the floor.' Spittoons were also useful for people suffering from tuberculosis who would cough up phlegm. Public spittoons would sometimes contain a solution of an antiseptic such as carbolic acid with the aim of limiting transmission of disease. With the start of the 20th century, medical doctors urged tuberculosis sufferers to use personal pocket spittoons instead of public ones; these were jars with tight lids which people could carry. After the deadly 1918 flu epidemic, both hygiene and etiquette advocates began to disparage public use of the spittoon, and use began to decline. Chewing gum replaced tobacco as the favorite chew of the younger generation. Cigarettes were considered more hygienic than spit-inducing chewing tobacco. While it was still not unusual to see spittoons in some public places as late as the 1930s, vast numbers of old brass spittoons met their ends when they were melted down during the scrap metal drives of the Second World War.
Tags: spittoons  hygiene  tobacco 
Added: 17th July 2012
Views: 3791
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Posted By: Lava1964

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