From 1916 through 1952 the United States and Canada experienced horrible outbreaks of polio every few years. At one point, one out of every 5000 children was diagnosed with the dreaded disease. Polio is a virus which can be contracted through contacting bodily fluids from someone already infected. Early symptoms might include headaches and a runny nose. However, once the virus moves to the central nervous system, it can cause paralysis and even death. Sneezing and coughing accelerate the spread of polio. Therefore there was justifiable panic in communities when outbreaks occurred. Public gathering places would be declared off limits. (Swimming pools were typically the first places to be closed.) Municipal parks would be eerily vacant. Researchers later determined, somewhat ironically, that young children were most susceptible to polio because most North American births in the 20th century occurred in the sterile environs of hospitals. These newborns did not naturally come in contact with small amounts of the disease as did their ancestors who were born at home. Accordingly, their immune systems did not develop sufficient resistance to the virus. Researchers Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin worked separately to find a cure. Both believed that by exposing children to minute traces of the virus through immunizations their immune systems would build up a lifetime immunity to polio. Salk favored vaccine containing the dead polio virus while Sabin favored live-virus vaccine. In 1954, two years after the terrible 1952 outbreak, more than 1.83 million children volunteered to be "polio pioneers" and serve as guinea pigs for Salk's virus. As a reward for their bravery, each was given a lollipop, plus a button and certificate acknowledging participation in the program. None of the volunteers contracted polio.
Added: 13th May 2012
Posted By: Lava1964
Avery Brundage was the only American ever to become president of the International Olympic Committee--a position he held from 1952 to 1972. He was also the most controversial IOC head. Brundage had competed at the 1912 Stockholm Olympics in the decathlon and pentathlon. He later acquired significant wealth from his contruction company combined with some shrewd investments. His vast fortune skewed his views of amateurism. Since he was independently wealthy, he could not see why every other amateur athlete could not be self-sufficient too. As a result, Brundage believed the only true athletes were amateurs. He denounced pro athletes as entertainers. Brundage rose to become head of the United States Olympic Committee by 1936. That year he controversially allowed the American team to compete in the Berlin Olympics despite heavy public pressure to boycott the Nazi-themed Games. He personally disqualified one notable female American athlete, swimmer Eleanor Holm, for allegedly engaging in immoral behavior on the team's ocean voyage to Hamburg. (Years later Holm claimed she had rebuffed the married Brundage's advances and he suspended her out of spite.) After the 1936 Games, Brundage openly praised Nazi Germany's economic resurgence and newfound national pride. By 1952 he became head of the IOC and a staunch defender of pure amateur sports, saying that the ideal Olympian should be a Renaissance person with many interests--not just the financial benefits of being a pro athlete. Critics labelled him "Slavery Avery." Despite being anti-communist, Brundage was impressed by the Soviet Union's national physical fitness programs and was instrumental in getting the USSR into the Olympic movement. Brundage was still at the helm of the IOC at age 85 in 1972 when a terrorist attack killed 11 Israeli team members. Brundage called for a day of mourning and then insisted the Games continue-- a decision still controversial today. In one of his final public speeches as IOC head, Brundage favored abolishing the Winter Olympics because of their growing commercialization. He died in 1975.
Added: 5th February 2013
Posted By: Lava1964
Issue Date: August 1970; Vol. 97, No. 580
Articles, subjects and contributors in this issue:
COVER: Bicycle Byway by Ralph Avery.
From Bach to Books by Jeffrey R. Haskell.
The Crow and the Oriole by James Thurber.
Boss of the Park -- Umpires -- by Bill Surface.
The Plains a Boy a Summer Day by Hal Borland.
41 Ways to Beat the High Cost of Living.
Russia's Menacing New Challenge in the Middle East by Joseph Alsop.
We Need Our Young Activists by John D. Rockefeller 3rd.
Portrait of a Mobster -- Carlos Marcello -- by William Schulz.
Sexual Inadequacy -- And What Can Be Done About It by Will Bradbury.
How to Talk With Your Teen Ager About Drugs by Herman W. Land.
Toward a Livable Environment:
I Victory in the Everglades by Jean George.
II A Sensible Plan for Future Development by James Nathan Miller.
The Car in the River by E. D. Fales Jr.
Bold New Directions for U S High Schools by Arlene Silberman.
Poverty at the Border by Lester Velie.
Try Giving Yourself Away David Dunn.
Japan -- All Asia Watches and Wonders by Carl T. Rowan.
The Gifts of Gregory Menn by Joseph P. Blank.
Better Living With Machinery by Charles McDowell Jr.
L Dopa Has Set Me Free by Floyd Miller.
Time to Knock Out the Vote Thieves! by Louis B. Nichols.
Provocative; Prophetic Margaret Mead by David Dempsey.
How to Murder Your Husband by Jean Mayer.
Rugged Idaho by Don Wharton.
They Go to Prison on Purpose Arthur Gordon.
What the Moon Rocks Reveal by Fred Warshofsky.
The Lesson of the Lemmings by Ola and Emily d'Aulaire.
Bottoms Up! by Jack Goodman and Alan Green.
The Duel That Changed Our History by Thomas Fleming.
Paper Magic of Origami by and Akira Yoshizawa by Leland Stowe.
KGB: The Swallows' Nest "KGB" by John Barron.
Added: 26th December 2014
Posted By: Cathy
A lot of people don't know the real meaning behind these statues, so they vandalize them, bitch about them being racist, etc. When the image of a black 'footman' with a lantern signified the home was a stop on the Underground Railroad. These are largely a northern thing, and weren't commonly found in the South until after WWII when northerners moved there and brought this custom with them. The clothing of the statue was also coded. A striped jockey's shirt meant that this was a place to swap horses, while a footman in a tailed coat meant overnight lodgings/food, and a blue sailor's waistcoat meant the homeowner could take you to a port and get you on a ship to Canada. I always laugh when I hear black folks talk about how racist these are, because honestly, the cats who had them were likely the LEAST racist. Later, these came back into popularity after WWII, and they were again coded to show the white homeowners supported early civil rights efforts, weren't Klan, etc.
Added: 28th January 2016
Posted By: Cathy